ShipwreckExpo
SHIPWRECK DIVING  Scuba Wreck Diving Equipment
The complete Diver's Handbook to the equipment needed for safe Shipwreck Diving
     

 

 

 

   Capt. Dan Berg's Wreck Valley Collection   

 

EQUIPMENT
By Capt. Dan Berg


The equipment used in wreck diving will vary from location to location. On shallow scattered wrecks, a single tank of air may be sufficient, but on intact or deeper offshore shipwrecks, double tanks, plus a pony bottle may be necessary. Diving in the warm clear waters of the Caribbean may only require a bathing suit, but New Jersey divers often choose to wear dry suits all year round. Take this into consideration as we discuss the equipment needed for wreck diving. The selection of wreck diving equipment is also a highly individual matter. Just remember, we want to stream line ourselves as much as possible in order to reduce drag, permit easier swimming with less fatigue, and eliminate the possibility of becoming snagged.



A wreck diver's equipment consists of the necessary thermal protection for the area, safety equipment needed for depth, and whatever gear is needed to safely dive his plan. For example, if a diver is planning a dive to 100 feet to penetrate into the wreck's interior to take photographs, he will need the proper supply of air which would be accomplished by carrying double tanks. For his penetration he will need a tether line reel, a main dive light, back up lights, dive knives and most importantly the knowledge and mental attitude to function in an overhead environment. Lastly, he will need his camera gear. All of this equipment must be located so it is easily accessible and will not be dangling, possibly causing the diver to get snagged. Dangling equipment is also more likely to get damaged, and it is certainly not easily located when needed. There are few hard fast rules regarding the location of items such as back up lights and line reels, but all divers should  carefully plan where each piece of gear is to be placed. For example, a back up light is useless, unless it can be easily and quickly located even in the worst conditions. I have always been amazed at how ingenious other divers are in the location of such items. Next time you're on a charter boat, take a look around at how each diver's gear is set up. If you see anything interesting, ask how it works or why it's rigged in that manner. Remember, the only stupid question is the one that is never asked.

It's also a good idea to mark each piece of your equipment with your name. This is very important on busy charter boats when everyone has gear that is similar. Marking your equipment also comes in handy when something is lost, so that if found, it can be returned. Let's start now by examining some basic dive equipment and some modifications that are used in this exciting sport of wreck diving.

 

THERMAL PROTECTION  Wet Suits   Dry Suits
It doesn't matter what area or type of wreck you're diving, some sort of thermal protection will surely need to be worn. As we all learned in our certification class, water conducts heat away from our bodies 25 times faster than air. Depending on the temperature and depth of the water you're diving in, exposure suits will vary drastically in design, thickness and thermal protection. In the Caribbean, divers may choose to wear a lycra suit or a 1/8 inch short wet suit. Northeast divers prefer 1/4 inch wet suits with hood, boots, and gloves or dry suits. Dry suits also come in many designs and materials. Basically you get what you pay for, so get the warmest proper fitting suit that also fits your budget. It is very important to be warm and comfortable while diving to better enjoy yourself. Note that most shipwrecks look more like huge junk yards scattered across the ocean floor. This wreckage is anything but delicate on exposure suits, especially in the knee area. Bill Campbell, a good friend of mine, started to wear knee pads made from old car tire tubes over his suit. He found that with this simple addition his dry suit, or wet suit, would last twice as long, which saves quite a bit of money over the course of a few years. Another added benefit from these tight fitting flexible knee pads is that they inhibit some air from entering the feet of dry suits. This reduced buoyancy in the foot area allows for easier swimming and amore comfortable dive. Other divers compensate by wearing ankle weights while wearing dry suits. Others go a little further than Bill and wear painters overalls over their suit to protect it from the abrasiveness of the wrecks. Divers who do repetitive cold water dives in wet suits should try bringing a thermos of warm water and pouring a little into your boots and gloves before your second dive. This trick also works well if your suit has not had a chance to dry from the previous days dive. Dry suit divers who find their arms constantly getting wet should try taping the neoprene wrist seals with electrical tape. Do not use duct tape as it is not elastic and may rip the suit when being removed. I have this problem because my wrists are very small, and whenever I work on an artifact, a small channel on my wrist allows water to leak into the suit. When taping the wrist seals, do not make them too tight or your circulation may be cut off. I also recommend folding the last inch of tape back into itself. This creates a small pull tap which makes the tape easier to grab and pull off later. This tab is especially helpful if the tape was accidentally wound too tightly and you have to readjust it while underwater. Another common modification is to dry suit hoods. Most divers use a hot nail to puncture and seal a small hole in the back of the hood. This hole allows air that would get trapped in the hood to escape. Remember the hole should be in the upper back of the hood.

 

   

MASK
Any mask that fits properly is perfectly suitable for wreck diving. If you are near or farsighted, you may consider one of the prescription masks now available over the counter at almost all dive shops. Since many wrecks are accessible only by boat, divers will find they have to make a variety of different entries to get into the water. For this reason it is advisable to wear the mask strap inside your wet or dry suit hood. In case a wave or dive entry rips the mask off, usually the mask will not have been lost but still held on slightly by the hood.
 

   


FINS
A diver's fins area very basic piece of his equipment, and nothing has to be modified for them to be suitable for wreck diving. However, many shipwrecks are in cold waters where divers are forced to wear heavy gloves or mitts. In this type of environment, it can be very difficult to put on or take off your fins. To make this task a little easier, many divers add a pull tab onto the strap of each fin. This tab can be made from a small length of nylon belt material sewn into a loop over the fin strap, or store bought designs are available in dive shops. The tab allows for easy location and for something easy to grab in order to pull on the fin strap. For divers in warmer waters, the tab will not be appreciated as much, but it will still be an improvement.

 

   


REGULATORS
Although there is no one brand of regulator that is recommended for wreck diving, divers who are planning to explore wrecks should make sure that their regulator hoses are streamlined. Route all hoses as close to your body as possible. Depending on the regulator model, this can be easy or may require the use of wire ties or velcro straps. The idea is to reduce the chance of a snag.

Divers should also be able to distinguish between second stages. This is extremely important, especially when using double tanks or a pony bottle. If the second stages were not marked, the diver could easily suck his pony dry while thinking he was using his main tank. There are many methods of identification. One way is to use a different style or color for the second stage or use color coded hose protectors. This can be carried one step further by color coding the corresponding pressure gauge with the same color.

The placement of a pony bottle, octopus or the use of a double tank system with twin regulators is often wasted because divers don't take the time to mount the second stage in a convenient and easily reached, secure location. Having the mouthpiece float behind you or drag in the mud is worse than not having one at all. Not only does such equipment get clogged, but it's also not easily located when needed. Your alternate air sources have to be located around your chest area. In fact, if you were to draw an imaginary triangle from your waist up to your shoulders, your extra second stages should be mounted within it. Each must have a quick disconnect release. This means that you should never store your octopus in a buoyancy compensator pocket because it takes too long to get it out when it's needed. There are a number of quick releases on the market, all available at your local dive shop. If you cannot locate one, use an alligator clip. Attach it to your buoyancy compensator, and then clip the exhaust port plastic into its jaws. This clip will hold the 2nd stage firmly in place, yet when it's needed, the diver only has to pull firmly. Another method is to secure the regulator's second stage to a loop of surgical tubing worn around your neck. There is no searching around for your alternate air source because it's always directly under your chin.

O-RINGS
O-rings made out of silicone are recommended because they have a longer life and are more durable than o-rings made of rubber.

BOTTOM TIMERS
Redundancy is certainly the rule when it comes to wreck diving. Since many wrecks are located in deep water, two bottom timers are mandatory. These timers can be part of another gauge or decompression meter just as long as they are easy to read and accurate. Bottom timers can be mounted on a console, on your wrist or even strapped to the deflator hose of a buoyancy compensator, anywhere that it's easily located.

DECOMPRESSION TABLES
Wreck divers are ingenious at combining the functions of more than one piece of equipment. They do this in order to lessen the amount of bulk carried or for ease of location. One of the most common of these adaptations is to install a set of decompression tables inside a clear dive light housing. These tables are easily read while underwater without fumbling around while looking for them in a buoyancy compensator pocket. An added benefit comes from the tables lasting longer because they are not exposed to the marine environment but rather concealed and protected in a dry housing.
 

   



MULTI LEVEL DIVE COMPUTERS
Although having a dive computer is by no means mandatory, wreck diving equipment divers have found these compact gauges to be worth their weight in gold. Many types and styles are available. I recommend a meter that in bold digital numbers tells you exactly where you are and how much if any decompression is needed. This information should not have to be interpolated; it should be digital. Personally, I always compute each dive beforehand without the computer. I then make the dive and use the most conservative number. For example, if the multi-level dive computer tells me it's safe to ascend with no decompression stops, but the dive tables tell me to stop, I make the stop. If the tables say it's OK and the computer says to stop, I stop. I also throw in a five minute safety hang at twenty feet as an extra security measure. I call this computer assisted diving. It is also a good idea to start your dive at the deepest level you want to explore and finish shallower. Remember the dive computer is just a tool; use it wisely, and it will enhance your enjoyment of the sport. Aside from calculating multi-level diving, the dive computer is an excellent and extremely accurate bottom timer and depth recorder. Other benefits of many computers include ascent rate monitor, surface interval timer, dive log, time before flying, and a repetitive dive depth no decompression time scroll.

GAUGE CONSOLE
Consoles are very popular in all types of diving. By utilizing a console, a diver can quickly scan all of his gauges at one time. Consoles range from small two gauge units to rigs that hold five or six gauges. Consoles can also provide an easily located spot for mounting a dive slate and back up knife.

 


 

   


GLOVES AND MITTS
In colder waters when gloves or mitts are worn, the abrasiveness of wreck diving can usually be noticed quickly on the finger tips. After only a few dives, chunks of neoprene seem to vanish, leaving only cold bare flesh to face the elements. To increase the life of neoprene gloves or mitts, I recommend using a thin coat of aqua seal glue on the finger tip area of each glove. Be careful not to apply too much glue, or you will lose dexterity to the stiff hardening substance.

To properly apply, squeeze a small portion onto a paper plate, then with a plastic knife spread the glue onto each desired area. Without any delay, scrape off as much of the glue as possible leaving only a thin abrasive resistant coating. This coating will quite easily double if not triple the life of your gloves. 

WEIGHT BELT
The equipment used in wreck penetration is different from any other type of diving. Take weight belts, for example. We have always been taught that a weight belt is an expendable piece of equipment and should be able to be dropped quickly in an emergency situation. Wreck divers who explore the exterior of ships also need to be able to easily drop their weight belts, but when doing wreck penetration a diver never wants to drop his weights. The reason is simple: A diver's weights compensate for the positive buoyancy of his wet or dry suit. If a wreck diver's quick release buckle were to get snagged and released while inside a wreck, he could find himself plastered to the wreck's ceiling. The answer is to install two buckles to your weight belt. Only use the first while outside a wreck, and then before beginning any penetration, clamp the second buckle shut. This will give you the added security needed inside while allowing for an emergency outside or on the surface. Divers should also only attach expendable items to a weight belt. In an emergency, you should not even have to think twice about dropping the belt. A short story comes to mind that will put this in better perspective. I was on a charter boat once when a diver surfaced. He was having a problem because he was over weighted and was having a hard time staying on the surface. Steve Bielenda jumped in, approached the man and yelled at him to drop his weights. He refused and was now gulping for air as he kicked frantically to remain on the surface. Steve's next move was nothing less than brilliant. He said, "Hand me your weight belt and I'll swim it back to the boat for you."; The diver quickly released the heavy belt with bug bag and light attached and handed it over. Steve grabbed the belt, pulled it away so as not to catch on any of his gear and released it. Both returned to the boat safely, and the belt was retrieved on our next dive. The moral is that because the diver had his expensive dive light and mesh bag with a two pound lobster init attached to his weight belt, he was un-willing to part with it even in an emergency situation.

HARNESS
A harness is made of nylon web belt, and its design and construction vary greatly depending on the manufacturer. Most harnesses provide secure D-Rings for attaching lights, reels and tools. Using a harness is optional and a personal preference.
 

 

DIVE KNIVES
It is essential for all wreck divers to wear at least one dive knife, and it is also highly recommended to have a back up knife. Almost any manufacturer's knives will do, but bear in mind that you get what you pay for. The first choice is what blade alloy to buy. Stainless steel varies greatly in its strength, durability and rust inhibiting factors. For example, 304 series stainless offers excellent resistance to rust but needs sharpening often and should not be used for  prying. 420 series stainless contains less chrome and is less resistant to rust. This alloy is very tough and holds its edge longer then the 304 series. 440series stainless is a high carbon alloy. Blades made of this alloy will stay sharp for quite awhile. The down side is that the blade will rust and it is a little brittle.  Knives made of 440stainless should not be used for prying. As a main knife, I prefer to wear a medium size blade, solidly constructed with a portion of the blade serrated. This serration allows easier cutting of heavy rope. Other options available in dive knives include ground in line cutters and a solid metal butt on the backend of the handle to use as a tap hammer. I also wear a small sharp back up knife attached to the side of my gauge console. Other divers wear both knives on their legs or mount the back up knife to their buoyancy compensator. As aside note, many wreck divers choose to attach their leg mounted knives with the use of surgical tubing. By doing so, they simply pull the knives up their leg to the predetermined location and do not have to fumble with small buckles when suiting up. Others glue neoprene knife pockets onto their suits. I happen to enjoy the new elastic straps and quick release buckle connections that are now on the market. The main important adaptation that must be preformed to some store bought knives is that a wreck diver's knife must be very sharp at all times. This is because in and around shipwrecks, we encounter monofilament lines, discarded penetration lines, anchor lines, and other nets and ropes of all sizes. Each of these could be potentially hazardous if entanglement occurred, and a good sharp knife will assure us an easy escape. A back up knife serves the same function in the case when a main knife is lost or cannot be easily reached.

One way to sharpen your knife is to simply buy a good cross hatched fine metal file from any hardware store. Don't try to get a perfect edge; simply file both sides and leave the ragged razor-like burr on the edge. It's this burr that will slice through rope better than a honed blade. The one down side to sharpening in this manner is that the knife will dull rapidly, so sharpening will be necessary fairly often. I recommend sharpening before each day of diving. Other more sophisticated sharpening methods include honing or stone sharpening.

DOUBLE BANDS
Double bands are available in many different styles and materials. Most serious wreck divers try to get bands made out of stainless steel. These bands are then modified with the addition of a special wing nut, a threaded shaft and a little spot welding so that a wrench is not needed to change the tanks. Another design that I have used for the past few years is velcro double bands. These bands were designed to hold twin 80 cubic foot tanks with a cross yoke bar or anything from 72 to100 cubic foot tanks with separate regulators. This system is especially nice since one tank at a time can be removed and replaced. The velcro double bands definitely take the struggle out of changing tanks on a boat deck in any type of rolling sea, and pony bottles are easily adapted.

TETHER LINE
A tether line reel is used not only for penetration but as an emergency up line, for search and recovery, underwater mapping, or in the case of limited visibility, it can serve as a guide to and from the dive boat's anchor. Some divers choose to tie knots in the line every ten feet. By counting the knots as the line is let out, the diver can tell how far he is from the anchor or how deep into a wreck he has ventured. Tether line reels can be home made, converted from construction reels or store bought. Dive Rite Inc., a Florida based cave diving equipment company, offers a complete line of reels. These wreck reels are available with stainless steel construction and contain all of the desired design features such as sufficient line capacity, lock down screw, and contoured winding knob. A reel should always have an adequate supply of line for the depth of water you're diving in. For example, if you're diving in 100 feet of water, your reel should contain no less than 200 feet of line. This is because of the presence of any current when and if the reel is used as an up line.  Tether line wreck reels normally use a 1/8 white braided nylon line. This line is rated at 1000 pounds. Nylon is preferred because it is strong and somewhat abrasion resistant, highly visible and sinks. If a floating line were used, it would have the tendency to get tangled in the diver's feet as it was unreeled, and it would not stay where it was laid out. Tether line reels should never be clipped off and allowed to play out unattended. The reel should be held with one finger firmly on the spool so that the spool turns only when there is tension on the line. When reeling in the line, reel just fast enough to maintain a constant tension on the line. When winding in the line,  make sure the line feeds evenly across the spool face to prevent jamming. Remember just having a reel is not a substitute for proper training in wreck penetration.

JERSEY UP LINE
Many wreck divers who explore deeper shipwrecks prefer to mount a Jersey Up Line to their tanks. This 5/16 sisal line is wrapped carefully around a home made reel which is usually about 18 inches long and six or eight inches in diameter. Out of each end protrudes an end of the wood shaft or pipe that runs through the reel. The shaft ends are the diver's handles. Usually a 50 or 100 pound lift bag is permanently attached to the loose end of the sisal line, and the whole unit is attached to the diver's tanks by a strip of elastic cut from a car inner tube. To use the up line, the diver reaches back for the lower inner tube strap and pulls it off the bottom handle. He can then grab the bottom handle and pull the Jersey Reel free. The diver then removes the elastic that keeps the line from unwinding, puts a little air into the bag and, while holding both handles, lets the line unwind as the bag rushes to the surface. Note that if the line is not carefully and neatly wrapped, it will most certainly pull out of your hands as the bag ascends. After the bag has surfaced, release some slack then tie the upline to the wreck. Be certain to select a strong spot with no sharp edges. He then cuts the line and puts the reel into a mesh bag and brings the bag with him as he ascends on his own improvised anchor line. This method is excellent because it not only gives the diver a good solid durable ascent line, but the lift bag also acts as a surface marker. Once finished with a safety or decompression hang, the diver can cut the line close to the surface, fold the lift bag and swim back to the boat. If done correctly, the diver will be up current from the boat and can almost drift back. The sisal line that is dropped back onto the wreck is bio-degradable and, therefore, causes no environmental marine problems.
 
JON LINES
The term Jon Line was first used after a diver named Jon Hulburt, who, while doing a dive on the Andrea Doria discovered that decompression hangs in rough water or in a current were made much easier with the use of a short line. This Jon Line is about seven to 15 feet long with a spliced loop at each end. One end attaches to the anchor line by simply passing an end through the loop and pulling it snug on the anchor line. The diver or divers (up to three can use the same line) doing a decompression stop can now hang onto the loose end behind the anchor line. In rough water, when the anchor line moves violently up and down, divers using a Jon Line will not find themselves being lifted from their stop depths, but able to maintain their depth relatively easily. Also a much desired benefit of the line is getting the diver out of the crowd. After completing a stop, the hang depth can be easily moved by making a fist around the anchor line just below the snug end and sliding the snug end up. While stage decompression diving is not recommended by any recreational diving agency, this line will also benefit those doing safety decompression stops.

I was first shown the Jon Line while diving the Coimbra wreck. We had about 14 foot seas on the surface, but with the use of this easy to make tool, our decompression stops were made more tolerable. One slight modification to the original design is to install a stainless steel locking carabineer to one end. For long stops in a strong current situation, this carabineer can be snapped onto a secure D-Ring on a harness. This reduces arm fatigue greatly.

LIFT BAG
Many wreck divers use lift bags to retrieve objects from the ocean floor. There are many sizes and styles of lift bags, but the most common is an open pillow bag. This means the bag has a small opening at the bottom to allow air to be blown in or expanding air to escape during ascent. This type of bag is carried commonly by wreck divers in the 25 to 500 pound sizes. The most common sizes are the 100and 250 pound bags because they can be rolled up into a compact size and will lift most artifacts. If an object is found that requires more lift, you can use your buddy's bag in addition and achieve a total lift of 200 or 500 pounds respectively. It is a good idea to use an up line when sending a bag to the surface. This line, which is attached to the bag and the wreck, prevents the bag from drifting away. Divers can use the line from a tether line reel, a Jersey Reel or a Line Ball. A Line Ball is simply a ball of strong line bought in any hardware store. The ball should be wrapped in duct tape with one end of the string allowed to protrude through the center. This string is attached to the lift bag before it is sent up. While the bag ascends, the diver holds the ball as the line, which feeds from the center of the ball, releases. Once the bag is on the surface, the diver lets out some slack and ties the ball to a smooth strong piece of wreckage. Usually each ball contains approximately  350 feet of line, so it can be used on a number of lifts. Line balls are also very compact but are not as strong as using a Jersey Up Line, so they should not be used in rough seas or as an ascent line by divers.
 

GOODIE BAG                              
Goodie bags or Bug bags, Game bags, Tool bags, and Catch bags as they are commonly called are simply a mesh bag that divers use to carry lobsters, tools and artifacts. Wreck divers should keep their bag wrapped up and closed upon itself when starting their dive. The reason is that an open bag would snag on each and every piece of wreckage you swim over. After you have caught a lobster or found an artifact, you can throw the bag over the back of your legs. The bag is of course also snapped onto the lower portion of a buoyancy compensator or harness. This keeps the bag form dragging. Some divers prefer to use a 1/2 inch rope instead of a harness. The D-Ring rope is approximately two feet long and is spliced into a loop on one end and has a D-Ring spliced on the other end. The rope is attached to the diver's tank valve by placing the loop over the valve before the regulator is attached. This line which usually hangs over the left shoulder is used to clip the goodie bag. One other note on bug bags, if you are interested in lobsters, buy a bag that has nylon material on the top and mesh on the bottom. This allows you to insert the lobster easily into the bag, without all of his legs getting caught in the mesh.

SNAPS
Most of the equipment divers bring with them has to be attached. Most of the time a brass snap and D-Rings are used. Never use quick spring snaps on your gear. The problem is that these snaps will and do snap onto almost anything as you swim past. For example, I have seen a diver who had a quick snap attached to his weight belt get hooked onto the dive boat's anchor line while descending. Due to the location of the snap and the size of the rope, he could not get it disconnected. I had to cut the webbed belt loop that held the snap to his weight belt. Another time we were shark diving over a shipwreck. A shark cage was floating behind the boat. My job was to film the sharks and to act as a safety diver to the paying customers who were taking turns in the cage. Well, even though we had stated that no one should dive with a quick snap, one girl did. She didn't even get all of the way into the cage when the snap clipped into the wire mesh cage. Again, the diver, her buddy and I couldn't get the snap off, and I was forced to cut through the cage with bolt cutters.  Another disadvantage of the spring snap is that it is responsible for a significant amount of equipment loss. For example, if the snap is clipped onto a strap or even a small diameter D-Ring, the snap can be opened unintentionally by twisting it so that the spring gate is forced open. Use either stainless steel locking carabineers or brass snaps with a sliding gate.


LIGHTS
As a wreck diver, you will need two different types of lights and, of course, back up lights. Your main or primary light should be a powerful, dependable wide beam light capable of illuminating the wreck's interior darkness. For penetration dives, this primary light should have a burn time longer than the planned duration of the dive. For any wreck penetration diving, a second wide-beam backup light is also needed. The second type of light is a smaller spot light used to look deep into holes to help you spot lobsters and artifacts. Remember the location of these lights is critical. Each should be located in a secure place that doesn't cause a possible snag yet allows easy access. If your enjoyment comes from lobstering around shipwrecks, try taping a lobster size gauge to a small narrow-beam spot light. This combines two items of equipment and makes it quick and easy to find, catch and measure lobsters without fumbling around for a gauge. Remember, as with night diving, it is important never to shine your light into your own or anyone else's eyes. This would have an immediate negative effect on night vision ability.

HEAD AND HELMET LIGHTS
Wreck divers as well as night divers and cave divers have found that having a light or lights mounted on their head allows the diver to have free hands while being able to see. There are all types of helmet lights on the market, or divers can use a little ingenuity and modify almost any light to be head mounted. A friend of mine, photographer, Bill Campbell, from New England, adapted two Modular Super lights to be helmet mounted. These lights, which are a favorite  of wreck divers, are all that Bill needs to make almost any dive. My own system is a little less extreme: I use a small Mini C light, which is clipped onto a small piece of neoprene that is glued onto my hood. This setup allows me to have a back up light in a location which is out of the way. The light comes in very handy when I'm engaged in working on artifacts or after I have penetrated a wreck with a main light and a line reel, I then turn around and use the head light to navigate out, allowing both hands to reel in line. One down side to head mounted lights is that while diving in a dry suit, it increases the amount of head movement which can increase the amount of leakage through the neck seal. This problem is usually only temporary until the diver familiarizes himself with movements that don't cause leakage.

When choosing alight to be head mounted, make sure it is easy to switch on. Then decide, based on the type of diving you do, whether you prefer a large main light or a smaller backup light. Cave diving lights are also excellent for head mounting. These units, with remote battery packs mounted on a harness or tanks, are extremely powerful and long lasting.

PROPULSION VEHICLES
Propulsion devices are a luxury to wreck divers. They allow more ground to be covered during a dive and have been used successfully to move quickly to find more productive areas of a wreck. These units are also very useful when navigating to a wreck from the beach or, as is covered in the excavation section of this book, as a digging tool.

 

 

FLOATS AND MARKERS
Markers can be store bought or home made. They are very useful in marking the location of an artifact for future dives or in marking the location of a wreck. I have found marker floats very useful in exploring shallow wrecks that can be reached from the beach. After successfully navigating to the wreck and sending up a marker, divers can search the sand surrounding the wreck or do a second dive without having to spend time relocating the site. Painting markers with day glow or fluorescent orange paint will make the markers even more visible.

 

 

 
The Shipwreck Diving E-Book  Instant Downloadable E-Book 

Shipwreck Diving, by Capt. Dan Berg is a complete how to book about the sport of wreck diving. This book is packed with information and heavily illustrated with over 80 sensational color photographs.

 
 

   
 
 
 
 

Shipwreck Diving ebook
The complete diver's guide to mastering the skills of shipwreck diving.

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6 MB instant download, printable  PDF file


Shipwreck Diving is a complete how to ebook about the sport of wreck diving. This downloadable PDF e-book is packed with information and heavily illustrated with over 80 sensational color photographs. Daniel Berg, a noted wreck diver, instructor and author of ten shipwrecks related books, describes all the basics of wreck diving. Topics include everything from equipment modifications, communication, and wreck penetration to artifact preservation. Dan also tells how to navigate on a wreck and be able to return to the anchor line after the dive. Why some divers find more artifacts and explains how to catch lobsters. Shipwreck Diving also covers such diverse topics as shipwreck research, photography, spear fishing and how to use an underwater metal detector. This exciting book tells all the tricks of the trade that until now have only been learned through years of experience. Shipwreck divers of all caliber will find Shipwreck Diving informative, rewarding and entertaining

Check out Capt. Dan's other shipwreck and Diving eBooks

 

 

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